Volume IV, No. 3                                           August 1998

                    Voegelin in the United States, 1939-1942

                2.  Bibliographic Update # 9, 1 Jan - 11 May 1998


                     _WAR AND THE CRISIS OF EUROPE: 
       Early speeches of Voegelin in the United States, 1939-1942_

                            Geoffrey L. Price

    Some of the early speeches given by Voegelin upon his first 
arrival as a refugee in the United States in 1939, are filed as 
separate items in the archive of his papers. However, mixed 
in with a file of college lecture notes (Hoover 86.4) there is
to be found information on a considerable additional number of 
such speeches from this period. These addresses had not previously 
been listed for bibliographic purposes. 

    In numerous cases, only the titles are available, listed in 
Voegelin's handwriting on two sheets in this file. However, in some 
instances, the notes giving the main headings addressed in the 
lectures are preserved.  The handwriting is difficult, and I have 
been forced to leave asterisks in the transcript at points which are 
completely unclear. For a few of the addresses, we have full texts or 
newspaper summaries. Full transcripts of the shorter papers are 
given; in the case of very long addresses, the general contents are 

    For completeness, I have also transcribed the text or outline
of all the speeches previously known and listed, with their Hoover 

    Taken together, these addresses give us a much fuller picture of 
Voegelin's estimate of the international situation both in the years 
before the war, and in the military crisis that ensued. Following the 
outline of the speech "American War Strategy" of 19 February 1941, I 
have interpolated one transcript of an examination paper which is 
clearly from this period, since it gives further indication of his 
deep personal involvement in the issues of the moment. There are
also addresses - particularly "Political Religions" of March 1939 -
which show how Voegelin's philosophical diagnosis of the crisis
of Western existence, was deepening in this period.


"Propaganda and opinion." Harvard Sociology Club. Manuscript outline,
16 February 1939. 

I. Opinion - Rousseau
        unit of opinion presupposed
            a) only reaction towards definite questions
            b) liberty of speech within the set of opinions

                       Milton - Spinoza
               Information news-papers - liberal type

II. Mass-Democracy

        Governing class in a politically awake environment
        Leadership & popular will - rational & emotional democracy
                Kantian Republic
        Aristocratic parliamentary style preserved - England

III. Complication - Class & Mass

    a) Technique of Spiritual Serfdom - enslavement by inculcating an 
    b) theocratic organization of opinion - Hobbes, Spinoza, 
       Mussolini, Hitler
    c) Modern techniques - [Le***], Freud
                    World War experience - mass in a crisis
    d) Consequent split of Elite & Mass -
       "Weltanschauung" as a [?pavement] for the others
        Creation of nihilistic attitude
    e) Precursors: Marxist parties in Europe

IV. Questions of Technique

    a) making "conscious" (Anti-Semitism)
    b) appeal to sentiments: aggression, inferiority and superiority 
    c) the ethical trick:
        1) War-guilt - Versailles - Western decoy
        2) the Nationality argument


"The Plight and Problem of Refugees." Manuscript outline, Boston: The
Community Church, 23 January 1939.                       Hoover 56:2

I. _Types of refugees_
     Political enemies

II. _Techniques of persecution_:

     Destruction of economic existence:
          a) confiscation of property
          b) dismissal from job
          c) barring all possibilities of employment

     Creation of the impasse:
          a) dismissal - prohibition as to contact with foreign 
          b) confiscation - order to pay taxes
          c) evaluation of property - tax rate

     State of anxiety and disintegration of personality:
          a) jail - concentration camp
          b) beating, searches, plundering
          c) permanent insecurity
          d) stigma: Jews not to wear emblems
                     "    not to sign letters by "H.H."
          e) isolation: telephone calls impossible
                        social boycott or dismissed
                        Jews difficulties to get meals

III. _Impasse situation in general_ (Sadistic element)

     1) no help within the country
     2) orders to emigrate - obstacles to emigration
          the Jews have to sign a declaration not to return
          Passport problems: the French Consulate
     3) deprivation of all property that would make possible a
          new start
     4) the Gestapo-rackets

IV. _Refugee situation_

     1) industrialists and bankers with small property saved
     2) specialised scholars and artists
     3) lawyers and physicians
     4) organized land-settlement for younger people.
                                                         Hoover 56:2


"Political Religions." Manuscript outline. Bennington College, 
Vermont, 13 March 1939; William Y. Elliot Seminar, Harvard University
22 March 1939.                                       Hoover 56: 3

I. _Situation of Science_

     1) Political resistance: the modern political movements style
           themselves anti-religious; fight against the historic 
           churches; resent being called religions themselves
           associated with the idea of science (economics, biology).
                However: Sorel, Pareto, Rosenberg; Mussolini: Religion

     2) Scientific resistance: 
           a) tackle the religions in terms of their own ideology:
                Marxism: bad economics             } deficient as
                National Socialism: bad race-theory} monistic 
                                                     of history

           b) mistake as aggression: the center *** is the rational
                                     and empiric contents
                "      " scientific approach: they are religions

           c) Myth of Science:

                Since 16th century: ***** as under of religion and
                     science working on model of natural sciences
                     success and prestige: comfort, imposing system
                     sense data and quantifiable facts: the peripheral
                           sphere; neglect the personal center 

                "objectiveness" - not meddling with the central 

                "atrocity stories" - Galilei case: 1633 abjures [?] 
                           the Copernican system; Tennessee monkey

                 the central sphere: values, religious experiences,
                           dogmatics - cut out as "irrational."

                 the most important section of life beyond rational
                           argument in discussion; relativism, 
                           nihilism. - leaving the field undisputed
                           to myths, ideologies, cranks and demagogues

                 science: _thereby the most important single factor
                          in destruction of Western Civilization

     3) Religious resistance:

          a) End of theology as a science;                             

                Some theologians still encyclopaedic: Sociology,
                Principles of ******, theory of Law

                Averroist irrationalism of the 13th century; 
                William of Occam

                Bodin: last great encyclopaedic personality

          b) Dogmatic petrified; no development; the process of
                rationalisation practically at a standstill

     4) Difficult and disconnected elements of a new interpretation:

          a) mass-psychology: Le Bon, Freud

          b) primitive material: Frazer
                                 Psychoanalytic treatment
                                 Uher: Politik, 1906

          c) African studies: Frobenius, Kulturgeschicte ***** 1933
             Assyrian studies: Ges******
             Greece:         : Farnell, Burnett and Taylor

          d) myth-theory: Sorel, Pareto

          e) isolated achievements: James, Varieties
                                    Przywara: Relgionsphilosophie
                                    Etienne de Greef
                                    Bernhard Broethuysen
                                    [other names in pencil: unclear]

II. _The Problem_

     1) Religious experience:

            life: birth-death; death of parents; birth of children.

            annihilation of existence: comprising body as well as

                 fragmentary character of existence: fragmentary
                      achievement; failure; set-back; disease

                 anxiety of existence; essential loneliness -
                      Kierkegaard, Schelling, Heidegger

                 "Why is something, why not nothing?" - question of
                              [in pencil:] Nock, Conversion

     2) Answers:  

         a) radical negative: suicide - only real pessimism

         b) acceptance of life: then no evasion possible -

              i) positive answers with a maximum of rationality -
                       analogia entis in the Western world
                 construction of meaning out of the materials of

              ii) escapes and defenses:

                    intoxication: alcohol,
                                  playing bridge, movies, radio,
                                  novels, social activities

                                  being pro or contra: sending

                                  work and success

                     defence:     traditional attitude - institutions
                                  ethical ****

                                  counter, that there is a problem:
                                  atheism; theory of religion as an
                                  illusion (Freud)

                     social organization: closed - Necker:   } les 
                                                           Dostoyevski } 

                    [arrow link]
                    [Escapes and defenses are] _ineffective_ in [a]
                         _crisis_: because anxiety of life is stronger
                         in others, and creates trouble      

     3) Contents of Religions

          A. question: what is the something from which we depend in 
                       the last instance; what corresponds to our 
                       experience of loneliness, dependency, etc; the
                       "border experience"; the "gaps".

             answer:   a) Stoicism and Christianity: it is spirit of 
                       an uncreated kind, personal, _immediate_

                       b) it is historical, particular groups: 
                       _mediation_ by a collective entity

          B. Historical Contents:

               1) a) Ecclesia: {Homonoia   } Body of Christ
                               {Hierarchy  ] Paulus

                  b) the Pattern of History: change in the 12th Cent.

                  c) The Rationale of Power:
                               i)  one God - one Emperor
                               ii) God - Devil; Christ - Anti-Christ

               2) transfer to particular groups:

                  a) the particular ethinical groups in Ecclesia:
                     rise of nationalism

                  b) the historical pattern:
                               i)  indefinite progress
                               ii) the three phases: Comte, Marx, 
                                   Lenin; Dostoyevski; Hitler and

                  c) the Totalitarian State:
                               i)  the Leader
                               ii) projection of the Devil:
                                        Hobbes: the Nation - the Pope
                                        Kant:   intellect - senses
                                        Marx:   the proletariat -
                                                the bourgeois
                                        Hitler: the Nordic-Clan:
                                                the Jew, 
                                                the intellectual

               3) three spheres of experience:

                    a) humanitarianism: 18th cent;
                              secularized concept of man

                    b) nationalism

                    c) the technological unit
                              dependence within a technologically
                              determined social unit
                              i)  the American fight for national 
                              ii) the idea of Autarky

III. Conclusion:

          Two prospects for the future:

               1) a new development of science ahead

               2) end of political science; strict prohibition of 
                  analysing the new dogmatic ideas


"Democracy and the Individual." Typescript. Radio talk, NBC-WMAQ, 
Evanston, Illinois. 7 July 1939.                         Hoover 56:4

Text of press summary:

"Voegelin on Air Today." _Daily Northwestern_, Summer Series 
18, no. 7 (Friday 7 July 1939): 5. Chicago, Illinois: Student Paper, 
Northwestern University.

"Voegelin on Air Today"

     "Democracy and the Individual" is the phase of "Democracy in 
Crisis" which Dr Erich Voegelin, visiting professor of political 
theory in the Institute of Democracy at Northwestern this summer, 
will discuss in his radio speech over NBC and WMAQ from 5 to 5:15 
p.m. today. He will stress the fact that democracy will last as long 
as the individuals want it to last, and that the type of democracy 
depends on the desires of the individuals.

     Dr. Voegelin, who taught at the University of Vienna until
Hitler took Austria in March 1938, fled to Switzerland to avoid a 
concentration camp, and came to Harvard University in September as
an instructor in Government, will use as a basis of his talk his
personal experiences in Central Europe.  

    He found that the people had changed from being democrats to 
plutocrats before Hitler was able to achieve his power, for otherwise 
they would have retained democracy.  The existing problem is: How can 
you keep the people adhering to democratic ideals during a crisis?

Text of talk: 

Too extensive for transcription here. The broadcast is concerned with 
the conditions for democracy, and the contrasting circumstances under 
which dictatorship emerges.                                           

"Democracy in Crisis". Typescript. Radio interview, NBC-WMAQ, 
Evanston, Illinois. Friday 7 July 1939, 5.00 pm. CDST.

Text of interview: 

Too extensive for transcription here, this interview covers the 
same issues as "Democracy and the Individual", above, again with 
detailed reference to Voegelin's experience in Central Europe.        

                                                          Hoover 56:4


"In the Totalitarian Climate." _Daily Northwestern_, Summer Series 
18, no. 9 (Friday 21 July 1939): 5. Chicago, Illinois: Student Paper, 
Northwestern University.                           Hoover 55:39

Text of broadcast:

    The reports which reach this country concerning events in Germany 
are, on the whole, correct. There may be a mistake in detail now and 
then, but I have not heard a single story of persecution which - 
according to my experience - was not implicitly true. The general 
picture created by the factual reports is, however, rather pale and 
misleading. The facts in themselves are unpleasant enough, but they 
are not fully understood when taken singly. They gain their peculiar 
importance in the life of persons who live under Nazi rule because 
they form part of well organized and cleverly released waves of 
terror, calculated to encircle the individual existence closer and 
closer to the point of extinction - meaning thereby emigration or 
suicide. Even the best American reporters have never - as far as I 
know - touched on this point, and never explained the psychological 
technique of creating an impasse situation for the classes of men who 
are destined for annihilation. 

    When the persecution waves are reported in their relation to one 
another we come much closer to realizing the peculiar totalitarian 
climate of terror. But even that picture does not give the whole 
truth. A reporter cannot, after all, report anything but facts. The 
essential feature of the terror waves, however, are not the actual 
atrocities, but the state of mind produced in the men who are 
potentially exposed to them. A man may be lucky enough never to be 
touched by any act of persecution himself; and nevertheless after a 
short time he will be a nervous wreck because he is living constantly 
in the expectation of what might happen to him in the next minute.

    There is a story of a Dutchman who comes to Germany and is 
introduced by Nazis into the achievements of the regime: the 
abolition of unemployment, the aggrandisement of the Reich, the new 
auto-stradas, etc.  Having duly admitted everything he remarks that, 
after all, his country has some bright points too.  And he tells his 
Nazi guide: When the bell is ringing at my house in Amsterdam at 
seven o'clock in the morning, I know with absolute certainty it 
_can't_ be anybody but the milkman. 

    A German can never be sure that the ring at the door does not 
mean prison for life or death.

    After the Germans had invaded my country in March 1938, I had to 
stay in Vienna still for several months.  I remember very well that 
every time the door-bell sounded, I looked around my desk for the mail 
which had come in the morning, for notes which I had taken, for an 
address which I had put down, in order to shove everything dangerous 
quickly in the stove and burn it because the caller might be a 
Gestapo-man - and once it _was_ a Gestapo-man who had come to search 
my home. I am perfectly healthy, but in these weeks I developed 
insomnia because of nervous heart-attacks; they ceased as soon as I 
was in Switzerland.

    The state of suspense was already highly unpleasant in my case. 
It was, and is, considerably worse for Jews as they are exposed at 
all times to attacks in the streets. A Jewish friend who was an 
officer in the world-war and had received a high decoration wore the 
decoration in these days, as many Jews did, as a feeble means of 
protection. Once he called on me and told me that he had just had a 
narrow escape. A gang of four SA-men had walked up to him, and around 
him, and looked at him carefully, and then once had said to the rest: 
"Dam' it; every time you think you've got one it's a foreigner."  They 
were out for Jew-hunting and had mistaken his war-decoration for a 
sign of foreign nationality. - Incidents of this sort, once a week, 
over a stretch of time, decompose the strongest personality.

    Let me give a few illustrations of the impasse-situations which I 

    You receive your permit to leave the country after you have paid 
the emigration-tax, of say: forty percent, of your property, if you 
have any.  Take the typical case of an old Jewish lady who owned a 
house in Vienna. The house had been taken away by the Gestapo; she 
had been put in jail and released after three months under the 
condition that she would leave the country within six weeks. In order 
to leave she had to pay the emigration-tax on the property which had 
been confiscated already. The tax office did not care about the 
Gestapo and would not give a permit before the tax was paid.  It was 
a nerve-wracking race with time to settle the dispute between Gestapo 
and tax office in order to get the permit, as the alternative was to 
go back to jail indefinitely.  This type of conflict between 
government offices which happened in thousands of cases is not 
accidental, but organized.

    A Jewish physician who knew that he would lose his job within a 
few weeks was lucky enough to find a position abroad.  When he had 
secured it, he resigned his job in the hospital.  As soon as he had 
resigned he was put in jail for sabotage.  When he came out half a 
year later the position abroad was gone.

    I have just picked out two or three of the hundreds of cases 
which are known to me personally.  I could continue the series for 
some length with reports of well-to-do Jewish women who wanted to 
save a part of their property abroad in order to have the bare 
subsistence and got it after they had slept with Gestapo officials, 
of Jewish lawyers who could not transfer their profession to another 
country and felt too old to start from the bottom and committed 
suicide, of aged people who were robbed of everything and after 
having got out of the country died of heart-attacks, etc. But I do 
not want to tell of individual cases. What I wish to stress is their 
typical character and the technique of terrorizing by creating the 
impasse situation. Behind the individual cases there is a state of 
mind which produces them.  Millions of people are at its mercy.  And 
this state of mind, it is my impression, is not sufficiently known, 
if it is known at all, outside the Third Reich.


"Modern Politics and the Decay of Christianity". Speech, Chicago, 
Illinois: North Western University, 1 August 1939.  Manuscript 
outline.                                               Hoover 56:5


     1) Politics always a sphere in itself - power
            not following Christian ethics:
            but accepting Christianity as metaphysics and theology

     2) Modern Political Movements:
                 their own metaphysics and religion      } decay - 
                 Christian Churches have lost their grip } situation  

                                the problem: spiritual

_Description of the situation_

     I. How far is the situation realized?
          1) Political Resistance
          2) Scientific resistance
          3) Religious resistance
          4) Disconnected attempts at a new Interpretation

     II. Contents of the New Religions

     III. Conclusion

          1) the secular intellectuals
               French encyclopaedists
               Mannheim: precarious role of the intellectual

          2) Prospects:
               a) a new development of science ahead
               b) end of political science: strict prohibition 
                  of analysis: the new dogmatic ideas 

Address repeated as:

"World Politics and the Decay of Christianity." Speech, 
Young People's Fellowship, First Methodist Church, Hinman Avenue and 
Church Street, Evanston, Illinois. Sunday 6 August 1939, 7.30 pm. 


"General talk." Jewish Fraternity [Bennington, Vermont]. Title only: 
recorded on manuscript list of lectures, September 1939.


"Religion in the European War." Lecture, Y.M.C.A. [Bennington, 
Vermont]. Manuscript outline, 25 September 1939. 

I. Line up: Democracy - Dictatorships
            Line-up of civilizations
            becomes evident very slowly
                screened by: a) national ideology
                             b) power politics

II. Back of it:

    A:  Liberalism:
            individual participation in Government
            civil liberties;            
                    going back to religious liberty
                    Christian idea of personality

    B:  Collectivism:
            Western Civ: essentially Christian
                      intellectual elite groups
            problem : integrate the a-***** masses
                        a) 19th cent. in England
                        b) workers      }   increase in 
                        c) middle class }   population

                      division of labor: destruction of personality
                        world-wide phenomenon

III. the War: ***** phenomenon:
                religious crisis throughout the Western World


"N[ational] S[ocialist] practices and politics." Women's Club (Mrs 
Smith) [Bennington, Vermont]. Title only: recorded on manuscript list 
of lectures, September 1939.


"State and church." Methodist Forum [Bennington, Vermont]. Manuscript 
outline, 22 October 1939. 

1) Phases:

    a) One organization in the Empire - corpus mysticum - St. Paul

    b) Church-centralization; model for the state

    c) Two Heads - Pope & Emperor.

2) Solutions: 

    a) State assigns church function - 
            England - Hobbes

    b) Church a private organization
        Locke - Toleration
        left: coincidence of moral precepts [/? prompts]

3) Post-Christian Conflict:

    new state religion - totalitarian in character
        different from Christian metaphysics
    Communism - National-Socialism
    admits no solution


"Veterans of the foreign wars: general talk." [Bennington, Vermont]. 
Title only: recorded on manuscript list of lectures, 26 October 1939. 


"Causes of National Socialist influence in Europe." Episcopal 
Women's Club (Mrs Morton) [Bennington, Vermont]. Title only: recorded 
on manuscript list of lectures, 6 November 1939. 


"The continental lawyer." Law Fraternity [Bennington College, 
Vermont]. Title only: recorded on manuscript list of lectures, 22 
November 1939. 


"European Youth Movements." Freshman Y.M.C.A. [Bennington, Vermont]. 
Manuscript outline, 26 November 1939. 

I. Youth Organization[s] and Youth Movement[s]

    1) totalitarian organizations (Germany, Italy, Russia)
    2) party org. (social dem; catholic)
    3) Boy Scout type

II. German Youth-Generations

    1) Goethe-Herder: Volk, regeneration of the middle ages, eastern 
       national ***

    2) Wars of Liberation: Voluntary Corps, University of Berlin, 
       ****** ****nationalistic      Fichte, Humboldt

    3) Young Germany: Richard Wagner, Heinrich Heine, Karl Marx

    4) the Socialist Movement - '60-'70

    5) the Bohemians - '90 Wedekind, Kraus, Weininger
                  negative on sex

    6) Stefan George

    7) Wandervoegel - male society, anti-bourgeois.

    8) post-War: Balti**** - C*********
            Radum - SA - homosexual
                broken in 1934


"German economic problems." Rotary Club [Bennington, Vermont]. 
Manuscript outline, 27 November 1939. 

1) Premisses of Economic Needs

    a) natural resources: foodstuffs; raw materials
    b) technological development
    c) size of population
    d) accepted standard of living
    e) social structure (permanent idle unbearable)
    f) freedom of movement of goods and men

2) Impossible Solutions
    a) the Colonies: no raw materials in the colonies
    b) the Balkans: 20-30% of German needs
            a **** starvation: permanent slave population
                    partial extermination
                    Coven*** [? Church] of Poland
                    Russian technique

3) Solutions
    a) refinancing Germany
    b) opening of world [?intercourse]
    c) obstacles: 
        a) disturbance of the well-to-do (wages, immigration)
        ss) resistance of *** and Italy, because of weakening of 
    d) German-Russian-******


"Some elements of the European situation." Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. 
[Bennington, Vermont]. Manuscript outline, 4 December 1939. 

European situation

1) Idea of the national state
   inapplicable East of the Alma

2) Western order, German Revolution

3) The economic problem to be solved   


"Extended strategy." International Relations Club [Bennington, 
Vermont]. Title only: recorded on manuscript list of lectures, 21 
November 1939.                                  Hoover 61:3

"Extended strategy." American Association of University Women 
[Bennington, Vermont]. Title only: recorded on manuscript list of 
lectures, 5 December 1939. 

This lecture was published as: "Extended Strategy: A New Technique 
of Dynamic Relations." _Journal of Politics_ 2 (1940) 189-200.


"Crisis of Democracy." Speech. Manuscript outline, ca. 1940. 

1) State:   a) monopoly of power
            b) population on fixed territory
            c) theory of sovereignty

2) Liberal-Democratic
    A. the Christian heritage
        a) freedom of the individual soul
        b) ecclesia
        c) hierarchy

    B. Secularization and Disintegration
        a) mediaeval liberalism
        b) collectivism    
        c) corporativism
                    / Reason
        Pneuma of Christ: - Nation
                    \ Workers / Class

3) Representation & Elite
        a) change in the concept of Sovereignty
            i) Prince
            ii) State
            iii) People - collectivist - polytheistic

        b) change in the notion of representation
            i) under instruction
            ii) as a free agent without mandate

        c) will of the people 
            i) to be identical with the moral law - rational
            ii) emotional will

        d) opinion
            i) reasoned expression      }
                (universe of discourse) }   predominance of one 
                                    or the other

        e) mass-psychology
            i)   aggression
            ii)  taking away burden of responsibility
            iii) identification with an idea, another person or a 
            iv)  effect: protection of dependents, weak personality

        f) elite
            i) as a permanent element of society
            ii) as [?hierarchically] will status established          

            iii) resented elite - under democratic conditions
            iv) under conditions of mass psychology

            i) magic recital            }


"Balkan Problems." Civiteus [Bennington, Vermont]. Manuscript 
outline, 9 February 1940. 

I. The Balkan Nations

    1. Hungary, Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Rumania, 
       Turkey, Montenegro

    2. Ethnically:
        a) the Slavic areas
            Serbs, Croats, Slovenes
        b) the Illyrian elements
        c) the Mongol Magyars
        d) the cr****** Rumanians
        e) the Turanian Turks

    3. long Mediaeval histories
        a) the Byzantine Empire
        b) Bulgaria
        c) R******, Service
        d) the Ottoman Empire
        e) the Hungarian defensive function
        f) the ****** ******

    4. Religious Aspects
        a) Greek Orthodox (Russians, Bulgarians, Serbs)
        b) Catholic (Croats and Slovenes)
        c) Mohammedan (Turks, Bosnians, All*****)
        d) [?Protestants] of Hungary

    5. Emerging National states
        a) the 19th century - Turkey
        b) the Balkan Wars
        c) the division of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy

II. The Great Power Fields

    1. Russia: the Black Sea and the Straits

    2. the *** Central Europe as organ****
            the natural economic unit - raw materials - oil,
                            *** wheat, ****
                            soya beans

    3. England:
            the defence of the Eastern Mediterranean
            for **** Western outpost of the Indian Ocean defense. 

    4. France: the Eastern ****, the **** of Syria and Lebanon

    5. Italy: cannot permit another Great Power, as 
            then its role in the Mediterranean would be finished.


"Rauschning's view of destruction." Meeting of International 
Relations Clubs [Bennington, Vermont]. Title only: recorded on 
manuscript list of lectures, 16 March 1940. 


"Nazi techniques of conquest." Lamda Sigma Phi [Bennington, Vermont]. 
Title only: recorded on manuscript list of lectures, 4 April 1940. 


"Attack on Scandinavia." Radio broadcast. Excelsior Radio. 
[Bennington, Vermont]. Manuscript outline, 10 April 1940.

1.  a) Danger point for Germany: Allied occupation; the expedition 
for Finland no battlefield.
    b) important as an [***] supply.
    c) useless as airfield station; Bergen .5 of [*******] Scapa Flow

2.  Means of attack:
    a) land invasion into Jutland
    b) by ferry to Seeland
    c) troops [*********] at naval attack on Oslo Fjord

3.  Reasons for success:
    A.  a) Denmark without defense: neglected
        b) Southern Norway: probably the moment of [*******]
        c) in the North: practically no defense

    B.  inefficiency of the British navy and airforce

4.  Results and next developments
        a) occupation of Denmark and Norway effected
        b) what will happen to Sweden?
            i) the occupation uncontested. 
               Sweden will comply with German demands
            ii) the British Navy should obstruct the supply lines
            iii) division of Sweden: the Russian factor
                             the *** of *****


"The technique of N[ational] S[ocialist] conquest." Rotary Club, 
Birmingham [Alabama]. Manuscript outline, 30 October 1940. Hoover 61:3

I. _The Psychological Weakness of the Democracies_

    1) the comfort-ideals of the democratic masses
            food, high wages, leisure, cars, radio

    2) secularization of modern society
            influence of women, the mother, the rea***

    3) peace sentiment -
            war-peace ideology - _means_ replaced the _end_
                   _peace is no policy_

    4) the defence spirit - Maginot disaster
            the idea of the immediate attack
            U.S. a third rate power, if nobody attacks her.

II. _Use of accepted political ideas_

     1) the sovereignty of the state:
            a) re-armament, coming
            b) occupation of the ********

     2) national self-determinations
            a) the Jews
            b) Austria
            c) Sudeten-Germans
        breakdown of the Czecho-Slovak-Lebensraum.

     3) anti-communist sentiment
            a) deception of German *********** - Thyssen
            b) the support of British industrialists and bankers
               break-down after treaty with Russia

III. _********* the expansion_
    promises and violations

IV. _Destruction_

     1) problem of the state - less than 1900 -
                            Marxian [?] example !
     2) obstruction of the state - bureaucracy, intellectuals, 
     3) democratic methods - ******** ********, *********

                                                           Hoover 61:3


"Discussion [American War Strategy]." American Association of 
University Women [Alabama]. Manuscript, 19 February 1941. 

I. The Three Wars

II.  Jefferson: 1) rights of neutrals
                2) Instructions to Livingston
                3) War of 1812

III. Wilson:    1) neutrality in thought
                2) the Lusitania notes - Bryan - [unclear: ? damning]
                3) lesson: neutrality against necessity
                   missed: American security and power

IV. Roosevelt:   1) no neutrality in thought Sept 4, 1939
                 2) renunciation of rights, danger grows - Nov. 4, 
                 3) throwing power on the side of Britain
                 4) Message of January 7, 1941:
                   a) no isolation
                   b) no aggressor place
                      not clear yet: peace impossible with Germany
                      axiom of foreign policy


_Politics 108_ 1st hour quiz. [n.d.]

1) Identify the main spheres of interest of American foreign policy.

2) Give examples for the influence of American domestic political 
factors on the foreign policy of the U.S.  Give special attention to
the following factors:
     a) protestantism
     b) republicanism
     c) representative government
     d) private property

3) Discuss the attitude concerning American neutrality of:
     a) Thomas Jefferson
     b) Woodrow Wilson
     c) Franklin D. Roosevelt

4) Discuss the Neutrality Act and Orders of 1939 under the aspect
that their provisions are intended to keep American citizens and
property out of war incidents.

5) Discuss the Declaration of Panama of October 2, 1939, and the 
reactions of the European Powers.               


"Time and the infinite in the 18th century." Lecture, Mathematics 
Club [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa]. Title only: recorded on 
manuscript list of lectures, 18 March 1941. 

"Some problems confronting civilization." Lecture, American 
Association of University Women, Selma, Alabama. Newspaper summary of 
speech, 16 September 1941. 

Selma Times, 17 September 1941  


    In an address before the Selma Branch of the American Association 
of University Women on Monday evening, Dr. Eric Voegelin, professor 
of Political Science at the University of Alabama, said that whether 
England wins this war or not, its social structure is gone, that it 
can not revert to its older situation and that the pattern of 
civilization will be changed. Nations are in disintegration, new 
loyalties are being formed, and the idea that everything will go on 
happily when the war is over is as erroneous now as it was during the 
last War.  The continuity of events and the evolution of social and 
political concepts and practices will go on as before and the ideal 
state of peaceful relations among nations is a matter of wishful 
thinking now as then.

    In a careful and informed analysis of the causes of the present 
disruption, the speaker attributed the British hesitation to their 
sense of unpreparedness which was due to feeble leadership, which he 
said amounted to clinical cases as exemplified in MacDonald and 
Baldwin, and such leaders he attributed to the British themselves, 
who elected them. France went down from the same cause, under the 
leadership of such weaklings as Blum  and through the psychology of 
lethargy which gripped the people and their aversion to work and 
responsibility which destroyed its productive processes. France 
literally threw down its arms and walked away, many sections of the 
army confronting Hitler simply vanished and the nation was in 
complete disintegration. The French do not yet know what happened to 
them and they rather like the German occupation as it relieves them 
of responsibility.

    He stated that a similar lack of organization obtains in the 
United States with the money appropriated for the vast armament and 
little being accomplished so far. An army of five million is the only 
kind that can accomplish anything, he said, and to the question what 
he thought of the United States Army of a potential million and a 
half, he replied that a military authority in Tuscaloosa had informed 
him that at present this government is prepared to arm and equip only 
ninety thousand men.

    As to the outcome, here and abroad, the speaker ventured no 
predictions.  He discussed the concept and evolution of Democracy, 
its overlying and conflicting segments and the multiple ramifications 
of its domestic and economic problems. The success of a democracy 
depends on the quality of the people elected to manage it, he said.

    The address was followed by an informal and spirited open 

    Previous to the address, Mrs Richard Williams, President, 
conducted a business session in which the work for the new year was 
discussed and fifteen names were submitted for membership. Supper was 
served in the hospitality room of the Alabama Gas Company.


"Roots of American foreign policy since 1938." Lecture, International 
Relations Club [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa]. Title only: 
recorded on manuscript list of lectures, 21 April 1941. 


"N[ational] S[ocialist] occupation of Vienna." Venner High School 
P.T.A. [Bennington, Vermont]. Manuscript outline, 23 February 1940. 

I. Attack on the institutions

    1) the army and the administrative departments
    2) the political process:   a) Catholics
                    b) patriotic front
                    c) socialists ( ****** imp.)
                    d) communists
    3) the educational institutions
                (Vienna Univ.)
    4) the general cost: the ******, private holdings, 
                    gold, exchange (200,000,000 $)

II. The Jews

    1) money contribution from the community (20,000,000 $)
    2) seizure of shops, restaurants, businesses etc.
    3) indiscriminate jailings
    4) plundering by S.A.; street [washing?]; round-ups
                permanent insecurity
    5) the Ephem**** case; Lederer
    6) dismissal from jobs; suicide some
    7) the wealthy Jews a) domestic - taxation and confiscation
                b) foreign - plundering ********
    8) the poor Jews (50,000 of 166,000 + jobholders); letter from 


"Talk on present war situation." Delta Zeta Sorority [Bennington, 
Vermont]. Title only: recorded on manuscript list of lectures, 24 
April 1940. 


"Excelsior Literary Society." Radio Broadcast, Excelsior Radio. 
[Bennington, Vermont]. Title only: recorded on manuscript list of 
lectures, 28 February 1940. 


"The law of the Empire builders." International Relations Club. Title 
only: recorded on manuscript list of lectures, 28 October 1940. 


"German Hegemony." Lecture, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. 
Title only: recorded on manuscript list of lectures, 3 March 1941. 


"Isolation and World Revolution." Lecture, American Association 
of University Women, Tuscaloosa. 

Title only:  recorded on manuscript list of lectures, 9 February 1941. 


"British War Aims." Lecture, Graduate School and Department of 
Government, Louisiana State University, 24 February 1942.
Typescript.                                            Hoover 61:14

     The question of war aims has, as far as the Western democracies
are concerned, in the present war a function rather different from
that of war aims in previous periods. One of the characteristic
features of the present situation is a certain confusion about the 
meaning of the war [,] even an absence of constructive purpose. 
Everybody is clear, of course, that we have to win the war in the 
military sense, because such victory is necessary to maintain our 
democratic communities in existence -- beyond this clear purpose
of preservation, however, the meaning of the war becomes doubtful.
The confusion is due to the peculiar development which political aims 
in general have taken in the Western democracies in the recent
decades. The aims of all the workers are to improve the conditions
of wages and hours; the aims of our business men are business as usual
and normalcy; the aims of our middle class are the freedom from want 
and fear, the abundant life and the enjoyment of comfort. Important
as all these aims are none of them are political in the technical 
sense of assertion and expansion of power.  We can easily see, 
therefore, that such nations as Russia, Germany or Japan, whose
countries are run by the ruling classes of political activists with
definite power aims, have the advantage of political and military
offensive over countries which are dominated by the above-mentioned
aims of non-political life.

     In the case of Britain which had to bear the brunt of the war 
most intensely, we can notice, therefore, at present a subtle change 
in political opinion concerning the meaning of the war. Former ideas 
of mechanical organizations for peace as an aftermath of the present
war are giving way to an insight into the conditions of a stable 
order in both respects: the maintenance of an effective power 
organization and the creation of an order which satisfies require-
ments of social justice.

     Considerable importance has to be attached under this aspect to
a pamphlet by Professor R.H. Tawney entitled _Why Britain Fights_, in 
which the distinguished historian (who recently received an honorary
Ph.D. from the University of Chicago) sets forth his opinions on the
requirements of a future stable order.  After a general analysis of 
the confused present situation with its predominance of materialistic
aims, he finds that the national state is a form which has come to the
end of its usefulness and will have to give way to new forms of 
organization which recognize the supernational impact of economic
problems.  He suggests international governmental agencies for the 
regulation of commerce, raw materials, tariffs etc., with functions
similar to those of the American interstate commerce commission in the
domestic sphere.  He does not believe that the mechanical construction
of a league of nations would serve any useful purpose, but that
such countries as would like to should enter federations, and believes
it possible that such federations and other states which wish to 
associate with them may do so under treaty systems closely adapted
to the requirements of the situation.

     In the domestic field Professor Tawney believes it impossible 
that the old economic and social structure in England can be 
maintained, but that a considerable redefinition of the rights of 
property and the planned economy will be necessary, which gives 
adequate social status and protection to the masses of workers. While 
the opinions of Professor Tawney are in no way official, they have
considerable importance as emanating from one of the foremost English
scholars and Christian thinkers, and as giving expression to the 
sometimes inarticulate opinion of the vast lower middle class and 
working masses of England.

Press summary. _The Advocate_ (Baton Rouge, Louisiana): Wednesday
25 February 1942.

     "Definite Aims Are Needed for Fighting War, Voegelin Says"

     A country cannot fight a successful war unless it has definite
aims.  Those aims are what democracies today are lacking. So pointed
out Dr. Eric Voegelin, visiting professor at Louisiana State 
University, in a talk last night on "British War Aims," the first
of a series of lectures he will give here.

     "War aims are not so different from political aims," Dr. Voegelin
declared.  Today we have no war aims, he maintained, because we had
no political aims before the war.  The workers have their wages and
hours standards; the businessmen want "business as usual" and a
"return to normalcy," and the middle class wants comfort and security,
"freedom from want and fear."  "These aims are respectable," Dr 
Voegelin said, but lack the dominating spirit of political aims.

                      Explains Political Aims

     The political aim consists of an idea of order and an idea of 
power to support that order, according to the speaker. "Our democracy
is dominated by a private set of values." 

     Dr. Voegelin took specific points in the Roosevelt-Churchill 
Atlantic Charter and show[ed] how unrealistic they are.  Commenting
on the first point, that the Allies seek no aggrandisement, 
territorial or otherwise, the speaker said this was impossible. 
"Aggrandisement is of the essence. If you say you do not want it, it 
is almost like declaring that you do not want the fruits of victory.

    Will the Allies let the Germans continue under the National 
Socialistic party domination if they win the war? " That question is
essentially what Point 2 (respect of the rights of people to choose
their own types of government) will mean, the speaker declared.

                         German Reaction   

    German reaction to the Atlantic Charter was an outburst of fury.
Dr. Voegelin said he gleaned this from looking through the German 
papers available in this country.  In English papers, he noted an 
indifference to the Charter, just as here in America.  

     The greatest part of Dr. Voegelin's lecture was based on a 
pamphlet by British historian R.H. Tawney called "Why Britain 
Fights."  Dr. Voegelin failed to point out any war aims of the 
British, because as he intimated the British have no definite war 

     Dr. Voegelin said that democracies would have to formulate some
form of spiritual value in order to win.  Our material welfare values
offer nothing for a youth to get a hold on.  Sometimes these youths 
become fifth columnists because democracy's order is so uninspiring
that fascism seems to fill the void.

     The speaker was introduced by Dean William O. Scroggs of the
graduate school.  Dean Scroggs told of the speaker's background for
ten years at the University of Vienna and for the last three years
at the University of Alabama.  Dr. Voegelin was in Vienna when Hitler 
arrived to take over that city.


                               Update # 9

                      Centre for Voegelin Studies
                  Department of Religions and Theology
                        University of Manchester

                Bibliographic Update, 1 Jan - 11 May 1998


D'Ambrosio, Rocco. "On readiness to rational discussion. _Episteme_ 
    e _amathia_ nella ricerca filosofica." In _La scienza 
    dell'ordine.  Saggi su Eric Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami 
    and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 15-23. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.

Engel-Janosi, Friedrich. "Ezra Pound, Eric Voegelin, Arnold Toynbee." 
    In _... aber ein stolzer Bettler. Erinnerungen aus einer 
    verlorenen Generation_, pp. 218-40. Graz, Vienna, Cologne: 
    Styria, 1974.

`Evangelium und Kultur:  Das Erbe des Christentums.' _Review of Eric 
    Voegelin._ Evangelium und Kultur. Das Evangelium als Antwort._ 
    Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1997; Owen Chadwick. _Die Geschichte des 
    Christentums_.  Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstallt, 1996. "."
    _Zeit-Fragen. Zeitung fuer freie Meinungsildung, Ethik und  
    Verantwortung. [Zuerich]_ 5 (1997): 5.

Gebhardt, Juergen. "La filosfia politica nello spirito dell'apertura: 
    Eric Voegelin." In _La scienza dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric 
    Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 
    25-52. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.

Herman, L.G. "Beyond Postmodernism: Restoring the Primal Quest for 
    Meaning to Political Enquiry." _Human Studies_ 20 (1997): 75-94.

Herz, Dietmar. "Il gioco crudele degli umanisti. Gli studi di 
    Voegelin su Niccolo Machiavelli e Tommaso More." In _La scienza 
    dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami 
    and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 53-70. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.

Hughes, Glenn A. "Eric Voegelin, Ezra Pound and the balance of 
    consciousness." _Modern Schoolman_ 75 (1997): 1-21.

Ikegwuoha, Michael C. "La storia dell'inizio." In _La scienza 
    dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami 
    and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 71-78. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.

Kaeser, Dirk. "Avventure sociologiche." In _La sociologia europea del 
    primo novecento_, edited by A. Scaglia. Milan:, 1992.

Lami, Gian Franco. "In margine ai temi di rappresentanza e 
    modernita." In _La scienza dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric Voegelin_,
    edited by Gian Franco Lami and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 251-55. Rome: 
    Antonio Pellicane, 1998a.
---. "Introduzione." In _La scienza dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric 
    Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 7-
    14. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998b.

---. "Rappresentanza in Eric Voegelin: tra filosofia e scienza 
    politica." In _La scienza dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric Voegelin_, 
    edited by Gian Franco Lami and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 79-93. Rome: 
    Antonio Pellicane, 1998c.

McKnight, Stephen A. "Il contributo di Eric Voegelin alla filosofia 
    della storia." In _La scienza dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric 
    Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 
    95-106. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.

Mistrorigo, Luigi. "Eric Voegelin e la cultura Francese." In _La 
    scienza dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric Voegelin_, edited by Gian 
    Franco Lami and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 107-15. Rome: Antonio 
    Pellicane, 1998.

Opitz, Peter J. "Le prime tracce: Genesi e struttura della _History 
    of Political Ideas_ di Eric Voegelin." In _La scienza 
    dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami 
    and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 117-40. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.

Petropulos, William. "Eric Voegelin and German Sociology." 
    _Manchester Sociology:_ Occasional Papers_ (1998). From The 
    Editor, Manchester Sociology Occasional Papers, Department of 
    Sociology, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL. Price 
    Lsterling 2.00. Cheques payable to University of Manchester.

Price, Geoffrey L. "La storia critica dopo Agostino e Orosio: Il 
    ritorno di Voegelin a Platone." In _La scienza dell'ordine. Saggi 
    su Eric Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami and Giovanni 
    Franchi, pp. 141-62. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.

Sandoz, Ellis. "Voegelin's Philosophy of History and Human Affairs, 
    with particular attention to _Israel and Revelation_ and its 
    systematic importance." _Canadian Journal of Political Science / 
    Revue Canadienne de Science Politique_ 30 (1998): 61-90.

Schabert, Tilo. "Roma non deve bruciare. Tre risposte alla domanda: a 
    che serve una teoria politica." In _La scienza dell'ordine. Saggi 
    su Eric Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami and Giovanni 
    Franchi, pp. 163-69. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.

Voegelin, Eric.  _Hellenism, Rome and Early Christianity_, edited 
    by Athanasios Moulakis.  History of Political Ideas. Collected 
    Works of Eric Voegelin, edited by Ellis Sandoz, vol. 19. Columbia, 
    Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1997a.

---. _Der autoritaere Staat_. 1936. Reprint. Foreword by Guenther 
    Winkler. Vienna, New York: Springer, 1997b.

---.  _The Later Middle Ages_, edited by David Walsh. History of 
    Political Ideas. Collected Works of Eric Voegelin, edited by Ellis 
    Sandoz, vol. 21. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 

---.  _Renaissance and Reformation_, edited by David L. Morse. 
    History of Political Ideas. Collected Works of Eric Voegelin, 
    edited by Ellis Sandoz, vol. 22. Columbia, Missouri: University 
    of Missouri Press, 1998b.

---. "Apontamendos suplementares para os alunos do curso do 
    introducao ao direito. Faculdade de direito da Universidade 
    Estadual da Luisiana." In _A Natureza do direito, e outros 
    textos juridicos_, pp. 133-45. Lisbon: Vega, 1998d. Translation 
    of "Supplementary notes for students in jurisprudence course." 
    Louisiana State University Law School, 1954-57.

---. "Direito e poderio." In _A Natureza do direito, e outros textos 
    juridicos_, pp. 133-45. Lisbon: Vega, 1998e. Translation of "Right
    and might." _Review of Politics_ 3 (1941): 122-23.

---. "Dois contributos recentes para a ciencia do direito." In _A 
    Natureza do direito, e outros textos juridicos_, pp. 151-60. 
    Lisbon: Vega, 1998f. Translation of "Two recent contributions to 
    the science of law." _Review of Politics_ 3 (1941) 399-404.
---. "Eraclito." In _La scienza dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric   
    Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 
    229-48. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998g. Translation of 
    "Heraclitus." In _The World of the Polis._ Vol. 2, _Order and 
    History_. Baton Rouge,  Louisiana: Louisiana State University 
    Press, 1956.

---. _A natureza do direito, e outros textos juridicos_. Translated 
    by Fernando Virgilio Ferreira. Lisbon: Vega, 1998h.

---. "A natureza do direito. Edicao temporaria exclusivamente para o 
    uso dos alunos inscritos no curso de Introducao ao Direiito 
    (Direito 112) da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade Estadual da 
    Luisiana." In _A Natureza do direito, e outros textos juridicos_,
    pp. 43-128. Lisbon: Vega, 1998i. Translation of "The nature of
    the law." Temporary edition exclusively for the use of students
    registered in the course in Jurisprudence (Law 112) at the 
    Louisiana State University Law School.

---. "Plano geral do curso de introducao ao direito. Direito 112, 
    Faculdade de Direito da Universidade Estadual da Luisiana." In _A 
    Natureza do direito, e outros textos juridicos_, pp. 129-32. 
    Lisbon: Vega, 1998j. Translation of "Outline of jurisprudence 
    course." Law 112, Louisiana State University Law School, 1954-57.

---. "_A teoria da ciencia juridica:_ uma critica." In _Eric 
    Voegelin. _A Natureza do direito, e outros textos juridicos{I}, 
    pp. 161-82. Lisbon: Vega, 1998k. Translation of "_The theory of 
    legal science:_ a review." _Louisiana Law Review_ 4 (1942):

Voegelin, Eric, and del Vecchio, Giorgio. "Le lettere di Eric 
    Voegelin a Giorgio del Vecchio. (Dagli inediti dell'archivio  
    Giorgio del Vecchio). Voegelin-del Vecchio: 6 January 1934, 22 
    March 1934, 23 February 1961. del-Vecchio - Voegelin (a covering 
    letter enclosing papers): 2 November 1960. With an introduction 
    by Giovanni Franchi." In _La scienza dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric 
    Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 
    219-28. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.

Walsh, David J. "La restaurazione dell'ordine." In _La scienza 
    dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami 
    and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 171-202. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.

Webb, Eugene. "Le differenziazioni della coscienza." In _La scienza 
    dell'ordine. Saggi su Eric Voegelin_, edited by Gian Franco Lami 
    and Giovanni Franchi, pp. 203-15. Rome: Antonio Pellicane, 1998.


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