VOEGELIN -- RESEARCH NEWS

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Volume III, No. 2                                           April 1997
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In this Issue:  I.  Guideline for submissions to _Voegelin--Research
                    News_.
               II.  _The Key Question_.  A critique of Professor
                    Eugene Webb's recently published review essay on
                    Michael Franz's work entitled _Eric Voegelin and
                    the Politics of Spiritual Revolt:  The Roots of
                    Modern Ideology_.
              III.  Bibliographic Update No. 6. 


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Item #I.

       Guideline for submissions to _VOEGELIN--RESEARCH NEWS_


1.  Articles should be written in normal academic style as if presenting
for submission to journals such as the _Review of Politics_, the _Journal
of The American Academy of Religion_ or the _Review of Metaphysics_.

2.  An article that is a response to work of another author, should open
with a summary of that work and the points in it that are to be the focus
of discussion.

3.  The Chicago Manual of Style (13th Edition) should be consulted on
points of style, spelling, abbreviations etc.  In particular, endnotes
should contain full details of sources referred to, in Chicago Manual
format.  (Please remember to use endnotes rather than footnotes and to
underscore titles as in point #1 above.  Remember also _not to use_ the
superscript feature of your wordprocessor, since this feature is negated
by ASCII.)

4.  Please remember to submit articles in ASCII format.  Most wordproces-
sor are capable of saving text files in ASCII format.  Remember also 
that accented non-English letter (i.e., "e" acute) do not reproduce easi-
ly over the Internet; so it may be wiser to use the closest English let-
ter.  Please keep line length to a maximum of 72 spaces, with no margin
on the left.

5.  Submissions can be sent to either editor by e-mail or by diskette.
(The preferred way is by e-mail.)

6.  All article and article-like submissions (i.e., review essays, ex-
tended comments. etc.), with the exception of conference announcements,
bibliographies, etc., are anonymously refereed.


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                         ---  PLEASE NOTE  ---

V--RN has been the recipient of a number of requests to comment on Pro-
fessor Eugene Webb's recently published review article, which appeared
in Volume III no. 1, on Michael Franz'z book _Eric Voegelin and the Poli-
tics of Spiritual Revolt:  The Roots of Modern Ideology_ (1992).  Every
effort will be made to accommodate these requests.  _All comments will 
be refereed_, and Professor Webb will write a rejoinder once all com-
ments have been published in V--RN.
                                                    The editors

                        =======================

Item #II.
                            THE KEY QUESTION

                             _Introduction_

Eugene Webb's review of Michael Franz's book in _Voegelin--Research News_
Vol. III no. 1, was informative and thought provoking.  Some of the is-
sues he raised touch on matters that I have treated in "Eric Voegelin on
Plato and the Sophists," in Communication and Lonergan (Kansas City:
Sheed & Ward, 1993, pp. 108-136).  There I examined the repeated appeal
by Voegelin to Plato's distinction of the philosopher from the sophist.
In the present paper, I draw on my earlier study, in an effort to clarify
what I see as the fundamental tenets and the logic of Voegelin's thought.

Webb begins his review with two paragraphs of his own reflections con-
cerning our post-Cold-War era.  He then examines key points from Franz's
work itself.  In later passages, Webb goes on to suggest ways in which,
in his judgement, Voegelin's work "needs to be re-read and reassessed to-
day."  He comments on his at times polemical stance; this he character-
izes as:
 
     monological polemic, dismissing the opponent in debate as beyond 
     rational persuasion so that he should be regarded not as a partner 
     in discourse but merely as [quoting Voegelin] an `object of sci-
     entific research'.
   
In contrast to Webb's diagnosis, I suggest that: 

- even in our "post-Cold-War" era, there will still at times be opponents
who are beyond rational persuasion.  (I turn below to the reasons why
this occurs).  

- when such opponents are encountered, monological polemic may still
serve useful purposes.  Among these, is the strengthening the convic-
tions of like-minded persons.  

- just as in antiquity, so today we may be forced to the conclusion that 
certain philosophy teachers are beyond rational persuasion, and so be 
left with no alternative but to refer to them pejoratively.

In the discussion that follows, I seek first to explicate and defend
these points, in relation to the basic tenets and logic of Voegelin's
thought (Part I).  I then examine the issue of whether the deformation 
of reason, is affected by distortions in what Jung called the feeling/
valuing function of intellect (Part II).


                         _I  Voegelin and Plato_

_The Philosopher and the Sophist_

Voegelin's thought clearly draws heavily on Plato's distinction between
the philosopher and the sophist.  In my earlier study, I argued that that
distinction constituted an operational definition of these two kinds of
persons.  This meant that the distinction was applicable not only in
ancient Greece, but also today.

In diagnosing contemporary intellectual life, Voegelin clearly made use
of Plato's basic distinctions.  However, he often did not use the term
"sophist," but rather the term "closed" or "pneumopathological" con-
sciousness, when describing the orientation of distorted reason.

This distinction is vital.  If we abandon Plato's diagnosis, we abandon
that of Voegelin as well.  If we do not abandon it, then we face the in-
tellectual challenge, of giving a clear operational distinction between
closed pneumopathological consciousness, and philosophic consciousness.
Can this be done?

    - First, we might define the closed or pneumopathological
    consciousness as one characterized by the explicit denial of a 
    transcendental order or an explicit denial of a divine ground of 
    being.

    - Secondly, we might define the consciousness that is not
    pneumopathological as one characterized by the explicit
    affirmation of a transcendental order or an explicit affirmation of 
    a divine ground of being--albeit that there are numerous ways to 
    refer to a divine ground of being.

    - Thirdly, we might note that the mere affirmation is not a 
    sufficient condition for the emergence of sound views.  Voegelin 
    rightly pointed out that the advice of Isaiah to King Ahab in 
    _Isaiah_ 7, represented a form of faith which expected a "leap out 
    of existence" into "a divinely transfigured world beyond the laws of 
    mundane existence"(_Israel and Revelation_, p. 452).  He rightly 
    pointed out the element of metastatic fervour in the consciousness 
    of St. Paul, manifest in his "inclination to abolish the tension 
    between the eschatological _telos_ of reality and the mystery of the 
    transfiguration which is actually going on within historical 
    reality" (_The Ecumenic Age_ p. 270). 

    - Hence, we affirm that the explicit affirmation of a divine ground 
    of being is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the 
    emergence of the consciousness that is not pneumopathological.  Even 
    highly spiritual persons can at times succumb to unrealistic 
    thoughts and expectations.

These operational definitions are already fairly complex.  Can we move
forward from them, to a discussion of the behaviour of real persons? 
What significant differences exist in practical living, between these two
orientations?  I maintain that they would shape and condition the con-
sciousness of individuals at all levels.  In other words, the underlying
choice between these two orientations would influence decision after
decision about what it would be good to do in particular circum-stances. 
Indeed, the divergences are so basic that they would easily lead to the
emergence over time of two or more different conceptions of rationality. 

Certainly, some common ground might exist between the two conceptions of
rationality: e.g. in questions of the conduct of research in the modern
empirical sciences.  However, in fields concerned with human choice and
the ordering of society, divergent judgements would be highly likely to
emerge, and affect many areas of decision-making.

In such areas, the philosopher--in Voegelin's sense--and his opponent
would probably consider the other's position to be hard to understand and
possibly even foolish.  Their disagreements would in the final analysis
represent irreconcilable differences, because they represent two differ-
ent experiences of existence, and corresponding conceptions of ration-
ality.  Such disagreements can of course occur on a larger scale than
those between two persons.  Under these circumstances, the issues under
public debate are often found to be so important and urgent that debate
cannot simply be halted.

If my argument correctly reflects Voegelin's basic contentions, then it
follows that certain public debates are highly likely to provoke dis-
agreements that are so irreconcilable that the debaters on each side are
going to consider the other side to be irrational.  Under those circum-
stances, the parties to the debate will be likely to make polemical
statements about the other side.  Their disagreements are in the final
analysis irreconcilable.  

_Practical Implications_

In the practical realm, compromise is usually necessary in almost all
decision making.  When our differences about how to proceed are truly
irreconcilable, then a stalemate will result, or one side will simply use
whatever manner of force is at hand to get its way.  However, in more
theoretical debates, the exigencies of decision making are not so urgent.

Let us ask then: is anything approximating genuine dialogue possible
between people whose basic positions differ as fundamentally as the
pneumopathological consciousness differs from the consciousness that is
not pneumopathological?  As I have suggested, in certain areas of work,
dialogue can occur.  But I do not think that Voegelin was wrong, in
concluding that on some issues, differences of outlook were irrecon-
cilable.

Certainly those scholars who wish to achieve genuinely critical study
cannot avoid engagement with the ideas of those who explicitly embrace
pneumopathological positions.  Such scholars should share their work, by
publishing critiques of those other positions.  However, such scholars
should recognize that their critiques are not likely to have much in-
fluence on the people whose ideas are being criticized.  

_The Key Question_.

The implications of my argument will be clear.  Genuine dialogue with
philosophical opponents is not always possible, contrary to what Profes-
sor Webb seems to imply.  For the possibility of genuine dialogue to
emerge, the people who hold that there is a transcendent order or a 
divine ground of being and those who hold the opposite would need to 
move to debating that very question.  Indeed, it is the _key_ question. 
What we hold on this issue, conditions and shape our consciousness and 
our very conception of rationality. 

The objection may be raised that this debate cannot be conducted because
people today who deny a transcendent order or a divine ground of being
are thereby axiomatically committed to refusing to consider arguments to
the contrary.  I recognize this difficulty.  Nevertheless, the key ques-
tion remains what it is.  Despite the official end of the Cold War, that
question has not yet been resolved, and I see no indication that it will
be resolved in the near future.


                     II  _The Deformation of Reason_

What more can we say, of the way in which belief in a transcendent order,
or resistance to that believe, conditions and shapes consciousness?  How
does the gap between the pneumopathological consciousness and the con-
sciousness that is not pneumopathological, become so entrenched?  Up to
this point, my argument has sought to explain the fundamental tenets and
basic logic of Voegelin's thought.  I now offer my own further examina-
tion of these issues.

_Thinking and Feeling/Valuing_

Instead of using the traditional terms intellect and will, I wish to use
two terms employed by C.G. Jung: the thinking function and the feeling/
valuing function.  What does this distinction involve?  For Jung, both
are functions of rationality.  In scholastic thought, the will has long
been regarded as a rational appetency.  Jung's terminology of the feel-
ing/valuing function may also be regarded as encompassing the shifting
concept of will, as Vernon J. Bourke has ably delineated in _Will in
Western Thought: An Historico-Critical Survey_ (New York:  Sheed & Ward,
1964).

Jung's choice of terms may readily lead to misunderstandings.  Daryl
Sharp (_Jung Lexicon_ (Toronto: Inner City Books, 1991, pp. 56-57) care-
fully explains that feeling is often confused with emotion (or affect),
but that feeling, for Jung, is not emotion.  Rather, feeling is "the
psychological function that evaluates or judges what something or someone
is worth" (p. 56).  The term which I am employing here -- "feeling/
valuing function"--though lengthy, has the virtue of keeping this point
before us.

In _The Inner Experience of the Law: A Jurisprudence of Subjectivity_
(Washington, DC:  Catholic University of America Press, 1988, esp. p.
201), David Granfield has made some similar distinctions between emotions
and feelings that are worth quoting at some length:

     Feelings can be distinguished from emotions.  Although often 
     called feelings, emotions are characterized more by intense bodily 
     reverberations; feelings are subtler, more intellectual responses.  
     Emotions may or may not be proportioned to what is understood; nor 
     are they as nuanced or as necessary as feelings. . . .  Feelings 
     are the mind's way of responding proportionately to what is good 
     in what it experiences; feelings complement insights, for only 
     with both can the whole person respond to the whole of reality by 
     knowing and loving what is true and good (p. 201).

Granfield draws on the statement of Bernard Lonergan, that "feelings 
reveal values to us" (_Third Collection_, p. 173).  Here again, we find 
the distinction made between feelings and emotions and the association 
of feeling and valuing.

_The Failure of Dialogue_

Let us now return to the problem posed by the incommensurable outlooks
held by those who affirm a transcendent order or a divine ground of be-
ing, and those who explicitly deny it.  

For the person who explicitly denies a transcendent order or a divine
ground of being, the whole of reality is somewhat limited, compared to
the whole of reality to which the person who affirms a transcendent order
or a divine ground of being responds.  Over time, the difference adds up
to two different orientations to life.  And the difference will probably
register most noticeably in the domain of value judgments.  The anonymous
author of the Gospel of John placed the following words on the lips of
Jesus:  "It is for judgment that I have come into this world--to give
sight to the sightless" (9:39 REB).

If belief in a transcendent order or a divine ground of being is a ne-
cessary but not sufficient condition for the emergence and development of
the spiritual dimension of the human person, we may wonder what else is
needed as well.  From the time of Plato and Aristotle, it has been cus-
tomary to note that people need to cultivate certain kinds of inner dis-
cipline and develop inner strength or virtues.  No doubt inner discipline
and inner strength are needed for the _daimonios aner_, the spiritual
person, to emerge and develop.

This point can be restated in terms of the distinction between thinking
and feeling/valuing developed above.  Without the careful cultivation of
certain inner strengths, one's feeling/valuing function will not be fully
and properly functioning.  These inner strengths are called virtues. 
Prudence is the virtue associated with the thinking function; justice,
with the feeling/valuing function.  Temperance and courage are the vir-
tues we need to cultivate the exercise proper discipline over the
hedonic tendencies and the agonic tendencies in the human psyche. 

Anthony Stevens and John Price have given an account of these tendencies
in _Evolutionary Psychiatry:  A New Beginning_ (London: Routledge, 1996),
which is relevant here.  They explain that defects in hedonic tendencies
can be manifold, including all manner of addictions.  Defects in agonic
tendencies can include not only overdoing agonistic behavior but also
avoiding agonistic behavior.  In general, the passive/aggressive pattern
of behavior reflects a deep defect in agonic tendencies.  The traditional
view is that defects in temperance, courage, and/or prudence are usually
also accompanied by defects in justice.  Thus, the cultivation of the
spiritual life is a rather large undertaking.

When people examine their own lives and detect defects in themselves with
respect to temperance, courage, prudence, and/or justice, those defects
are usually the result of archetypal wounding received in early child-
hood.  In a recent series of five books, Robert Moore and Douglas
Gillette have identified the sources of such defects as "shadow" forms of
archetypes in the human psyche.  As a result, archetypal healing is
needed.  When it occurs, it entails learning how to draw on the positive
forms of the archetypes in the human psyche, instead of being subjected
to the "shadow" forms.

In _Therapeia:  Plato's Conception of Philosophy_ (Chapel Hill: Univer-
sity of North Carolina Press, 1958), Robert E. Cushman also reminds us
that the thinking function "is governed by a controlling consciousness of
goodness"(p. 17).  For example, the use of the thinking function to en-
gage in modern empirical science rests on the prior value judgment that
human control over physical nature is good (pp. 266-269).  In this in-
stance the consciousness of the goodness of human control over physical
nature controls and governs and directs the use of the thinking function.

_Resolution_

In summary, then, we see that when the feeling/valuing function is still
suffering under the influence of "shadow" forms of the archetypes, this
will influence the thinking function, because it "is governed by a con-
trolling consciousness of goodness."

In my essay "Eric Voegelin on Plato and the Sophists," I suggested that
archetypal healing occurs most readily in certain kinds of personal
exchanges.  Such exchanges are examined in the study by Thomas Patrick
Malone M.D. and his son Patrick Thomas Malone M.D. _The Art of Intimacy
(New York: Prentice Hall, 1987).  These writers refer to certain ex-
changes as involving a personal intimacy which is growth-engendering. 
Such experiences are growth engendering, I would suggest, because they
involve archetypal healing.  

Socratic dialogues could involve such intimacy and archetypal healing. 
And, in the Christian setting - if the Malones are right about how such
exchanges can engender personal growth - then we can understand why the
anonymous author of the Gospel of John placed the command to love one
another on the lips of Jesus (13:34; 15:12, 17).  If this is indeed the
manner by which the inner experience of the spiritual life can be en-
gendered and spread, then it could spread among persons like yeast (Mt.
13:33; Lk. 13:21) or like mustard seed (Mt. 13:31-32; Mk. 4:26-32; Lk.
13:18-19).

As archetypal healing proceeds, the spiritual life emerges and develops
within the person.  In other words, the person begins to experience and
draw on the positive forms of the archetypes in the human _psyche_.  Com-
pared to the old experience of "shadow" forms, this new experience is
like having a new source of life within oneself.  Indeed, this new source
of life is like a _daemon_ within oneself, which is the etymological
meaning of the Greek word _daimonios_ mentioned above.  St. Paul ex-
pressed an equivalent experience when he reported that he lives no more
but Christ lives in him (Gal. 2:20)--as a daemon.

If we read the Gospel of John as the spiritual autobiography of its 
anonymous author, as the late Canadian Jesuit biblical scholar David M. 
Stanley (1914-1996) suggested (Class notes from lectures, University
of Toronto, Fall 1985) that we should read each of the four anonymous
gospel writers, then we would interpret many of the speeches placed by
the author on the lips of Jesus as expressing another equivalent ex-
perience of the emergence of the spiritual life within author's psyche
--most notably the speeches about being living water (4:10-14) and about
being the bread of life (6:35, 51) and about being the vine (15:1-17). 
The author of John placed two extraordinary statements about the
spiritual life on the lips of Jesus:  

     "I have come that they may have life, and may have it in all its 
      fullness" (10:10 REB).  

     "In very truth I tell you, whoever has faith in me will do what 
      I am doing; indeed he will do greater things still" (14:12 REB).

No doubt the historical Jesus also had an equivalent inner experience,
which he expressed as the inner reign of God.  In his study _Jesus: A
Revolutionary Biography_ (San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1994, pp.
46-48), John Dominic Crossan has suggested that Jesus and John the Bap-
tist preached radically different messages.  John the Baptist preached
an apocalyptic eschatology, whereas Jesus preached a sapiential escha-
tology.  In other words, John the Baptist envisioned God breaking into
earthly existence and thereby putting an end to the world as we know it. 
(This vision resembles Isaiah's advice to the king in _Isaiah_ 7).  By
contrast, Jesus apparently experienced God in himself.  He has charac-
terized this inner experience as being like yeast and spreading like
mustard plants.  I agree with Crossan about Jesus, because the parables
attributed to him in the gospels make little sense as pronouncements
about the impending end of the world.  They make more sense as descrip-
tions of the emergence and growth of the spiritual life.

I suggest that we need to recognize the basic equivalence in various
expressions in the Western tradition about the emergence of the inner
experience of the spiritual life, which involves the healing and
growth of the feeling/valuing function.  The emergence and growth of 
the spiritual life within a person is often expressed as being like a 
new life because it is so different from the person's prior experience 
of life.  In Plato, the expression daimonios aner contains the etymo-
logical meaning of a daemon, a spirit within oneself.  In St. Paul, this
kind of experience is expressed when he says that he lives no more but
Christ lives in him (Gal. 2:20).  In the Gospel of John, this kind of
experience is expressed when the author has Jesus tell Nicodemus that he
must be born again (Jn. 3:1-21).  In the historical Jesus, this kind of
experience is expressed in various parables and sayings about the inner
reign of God.

Light imagery is used at times to express this experience.  Sometimes it
is also used to set up a contrast with the prior condition.  The prior
condition is characterized by Plato as being like living in a cave and
seeing only shadows.  In the Book of Ecclesiastes, Qoheleth exclaims
thirty-seven times about the prior condition as being something like
living in a fog, which expression is sometimes translated into English as
vanity (KJV) or futility (REB).  The contrast between darkness and light
is part of the basic structure of the Gospel of John.  Of course, in
certain non-Western spiritual traditions, light imagery abounds in the
form of expressions about being enlightened.

Qoheleth is even more explicit in calling attention to the inner ex-
perience of the feeling/valuing function.  He urges persons to count 
themselves blessed by God if they are able to work hard and take joy in 
the work they do and the food they eat--instead of being workaholics 
and/or compulsively overeating or overdrinking (Eccles. 2:24, 26; 3:12-
13, 22; 5:19-20; 6:9; 8:15; 9:7; and 11:9-10).  These passages, I main-
tain, do not express a form of hedonism.  For in other statements, 
Quoheleth repeatedly draws attention to the great variety of empty 
actions that we _could_ pursue.  He works with a contrast between that 
which is empty and that which is not.  I grant that he is hard pressed 
for words to express that which is not empty: but whatever the inner 
experience is that he is referring to, it surely is not hedonism in the 
ordinary sense of the term.  After all, he asserts that it is a blessing
from God--a blessing experienced as inner experience, not a blessing in
the form of external goods.  Thus I take Quoheleth to be referring to a
spontaneous but genuine experience of joy that derives from the feeling/
valuing function, not from the satisfaction of hedonic tendencies.

Expressed in these different ways, the experience spoken of involves the
healing and growth of the feeling/valuing function within the person.  It
is usually accompanied by a transformation of values--seeing the world
differently.  If we read the canonical gospels as the spiritual autobio-
graphies of their anonymous authors, then we would have to say that the
author of John (12:40) found something expressed in Isa. 6:8-10 that con-
firmed his own experience of the spiritual life (also see Mt. 13:14-15;
Mk. 4:12).

                            III  _Conclusion_
    
First, I maintain that Voegelin has rightly alerted us to watch out for
people who explicitly deny that there is a transcendent order or a divine
ground of being.  As Isaiah might put it, they will look and look but not
see.  As Plato might put it, they are still in the cave watching shadows.

At times Voegelin's language concerning philosophers with whom rational
discussion is impossible, is harsh: but this is inescapable.

Secondly, I maintain that our study of these fundamental divergences,
should be complemented from modern psychiatry.  As Moore and Gillette
might put it, those who inhabit the cave are still suffering from the
"shadow" forms of the archetypes in their psyches.  In short, their
feeling/valuing function is not fully functional.  As Isaiah might put
it, they need to turn to God and be healed.  Even so, we all need to work
vigilantly to overcome disorders within ourselves.  In the meantime,
Professor Webb is surely correct in urging us to work toward developing
institutions designed to minimize the damage caused by disorders in our
rulers.


Thomas J. Farrell
University of Minnesota, Duluth


                        =======================

Item #III.
                         Literature Update # 6
                        
                              including:
     _History of Political Ideas_: First Volume of Portuguese Edition  
                Poems and Essays in Honor of Wesley Trimpi               
                  Essays by Gerhart Niemeyer on Voegelin
                       New Theses and Dissertations
                            Gnosticism Thesis
                

Avis, Paul D.L. "Review of Eugene Webb. _Philosophers of 
     Consciousness: Polanyi, Lonergan, Voegelin, Ricoeur, Girard, 
     Kierkegaard_. Seattle, Washington: Washington University Press, 
     1988." _Scottish Journal of Theology_ 43 (1990): 409-411.

Bourne, David Alexander.  "The Problem with Eric Voegelin's Historical 
     Conception of Philosophy."  M.A. Thesis, School of Graduate 
     Studies, Mc Master University, 1981. ([Supervised by George Grant 
     up to 1980]).

Bowes, Alison Christine.  "The Dry Stone No Sound of Water: The Last 
     Stand of Christian Universal History."  M.A Thesis, University of 
     Calgary, Calgary, 1994. ([D.A. MM03133]).

Brillante, Antonietta.  "Teoria dell'ordine e antropologia politica in 
     Eric Voegelin."  Ph.D. Dissertation, Pisa: Universita degli Studi 
     di Pisa, 1996.

Burchfield, Charles Warren.  "Eric Voegelin's Mystical Epistemology and 
     Its Influence on Ethics and Politics."  Ph.D. Dissertation, 
     Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1995. ([D.A. 95-08555]).

Cahill, P.Joseph. "Review of Kirby, John and William Thompson, eds. 
     _Voegelin and the Theologian: Ten Studies in Interpretation_ 
     Toronto: Edwin Mellen Press, 1983." _Religious Studies and 
     Theology_ 7 (1987): 71-72.

Clifford, Craig. _The Tenure of Phil Wisdom: Dialogues_. Lanham, 
     Maryland: University Press of America, 1995.

Duncan, William B.  "The Political Philosophy of Gustavo Gutierrez."  
     Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Technical University, 1995. ([D.A. 95-
     29827]).

Ericson, J.F. "Review of Juergen Gebhardt. _Americanism: Revolutionary 
     Order and Societal Self-Interpretation in the American Republic_. 
     Baton Rouge, Lousiana: Lousiana State University Press, 1993." 
    _Journal of Politics_ 56 (1994): 537-538.

Forlizzi, G. "Review of Rocco D'Ambrosio. _Ordine, Umanita e Politica: 
     Saggio su Eric Voegelin_. Bari: Caccuci Editore, 1995." _Civilta 
     Cattolica_ issue 1 (1997): 96-97.

Germino, Dante. "Review of Eric Voegelin. _In Search of Order_. Order 
     and History. Vol. 5. 1987." _This World_ 22 (1988): 145-147.

Granfield, David. "Review of Glenn C. Hughes. _Mystery and Myth in the 
     Philosophy of Eric Voegelin_. Columbia, Missouri: University of 
     Missouri Press, 1993." _Dialogue and Alliance_ 8 (1994): 111-112.

Grant, George.  _Selected Letters_, edited by William Christian, pp. 
     359, 380, 381n, 382n. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Hallowell, John, and Porter, Jene. _Political Philosophy: The Search 
     for Humanity and Order_. New York: Prentice Hall, 1997.

Henningsen, Manfred. "`Voegelin's America.' Review of Eric Voegelin. 
     _On the Form of the American Mind_. 1928. Vol. 1. _Collected 
     Works  of Eric Voegelin_, 1995." _Review of Politics_ 58 
     (1996): 625-628.

Hinrich, Johann. "Denkweg in die Emigration. Terror als Abfall von 
     Gott: Eric Voegelins politische Theologie im Jahr 1938." 
     _Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Geisteswissenschaften_ (Wednesday 
     5 February 1997): 6.

Hoye, T.K. "Review of Eric Voegelin. _From Enlightenment to 
      Revolution_. Edited by John H. Hallowell. Durham, North Carolina: 
      Duke University Press, 1975." _Journal of Church and State_ 20 
      (1978): 122- 125.

Hughes, Glenn A. "Review of Michael P. Morrissey. _Consciousness and 
     Transcendence: The Theology of Eric Voegelin_. Notre Dame, Indiana: 
     University of Notre Dame Press, 1994." _First Things_ 57 (1995): 
     64.

Lawson, Lewis A. "Samuel L. Clemens: Gnosis in Camelot." _Modern Age_ 
     36 (1993): 47-62.

Loewenberg, Robert J. "Freedom in the Context of American 
     Historiography: The Problem of Slavery." _Center Journal_ 1 
     (1982):  71- 99.

Lyon, J. "Review of Eric Voegelin. _From Enlightenment to Revolution_. 
     Edited by John H. Hallowell. Durham, North Carolina: Duke 
     University Press, 1975." _Historical Magazine of the Protestant
     Episcopal Church_ 48 (1979): 123-124.

Mann, Gary. "Review of Michael P. Morrissey. _Consciousness and 
     Transcendence: The Theology of Eric Voegelin_. Notre Dame, Indiana: 
     University of Notre Dame Press, 1994." _American Journal of  
     Theology and Philosophy_ 16 (1995): 233-236.

Marx, Otto M. "What is the History of Psychiatry ?" _History of 
     Psychiatry_ 3 (1992): 279-301.

McAllister, Ted Vernon.  "Revolt Against Modernity: Leo Strauss, Eric 
     Voegelin and the Search for a Post-Liberal Order."  Ph.D. 
     Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1995. ([D.A. 95-10783]).
 
Melchin, Kenneth R. "Review of Kenneth Keulman. _The Balance of 
     Consciousness_. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State 
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---. "Review of Glenn C. Hughes. _Mystery and Myth in the Philosophy 
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Messerley, J.G. "Review of Glenn C. Hughes. _Mystery and Myth in the 
     Philosophy of Eric Voegelin_. Columbia, Missouri: University of 
     Missouri Press, 1993." _Review of Metaphysics_ 47 (1994): 822-823.

Molnar, Thomas. "Paganism and Its Renewal." _Intercollegiate Review_ 
     31 (1995): 28-35.

Montgomery, Marion. "Ralph Nader as Gnostic Puritan: A Post-Mortem." In 
     _Virtue and Modern Shadows of Turning_, pp. 79-96. Lanham, 
     Maryland: University Press of America, 1990.

Niemeyer, Gerhart. "`Reconstituting Political Theory.' Review of Eric 
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     Society_ 2 (1969): 42-46.

---. "Redeeming the Time." _Hillsdale Review_ 3 (1986): 3-13.

---. "Christianity in a Time-Bound Perspective." _Modern Age_ 33 
     (1990): 184-192.

---. "`Beyond Institutions and Patterns of Power.' In _Von der Ost-
     West-Konfrontation zur Europaeischen Friedensordnung_." 
     _Suedosteuropa-Studie_ 50 (1992): 301-303. Edited by Gunther 
     Wagenlehner.

---. "This Terrible Century." _Intercollegiate Review_ 29 (1993): 3-10.

---. "After Lenin: Who Helps Whom?" In _Within and Above Ourselves: 
     Essays in Political Analysis_, pp. 170-84. Wilmington, Delaware: 
     Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1996a.

---. "Are There `Intelligible Parts' of History?" In _Within and Above 
     Ourselves: Essays in Political Analysis_, pp. 28-47. Wilmington, 
     Delaware: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1996b.

---. "Christian Faith, and Religion, In Eric Voegelin's Work." In 
     _Within and Above Ourselves: Essays in Political Analysis_, pp. 
     126- 42. Wilmington, Delaware: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 
     1996c.

---. "Christianity in a Time-Bound Perspective." In _Within and Above 
     Ourselves: Essays in Political Analysis_, pp. 223-40. Wilmington, 
     Delaware: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1996d.

---. "Faith and Reason in Eric Voegelin." In _Within and Above 
     Ourselves: Essays in Political Analysis_, pp. 118-25. Wilmington, 
     Delaware: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1996e.

---. "`God and Man, World and Society: The Last Work of Eric Voegelin.' 
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     Analysis_, pp. 143-63. Wilmington, Delaware: Intercollegiate 
     Studies Institute, 1996f.

---. "`Reconstituting Political Theory.' Review of Eric Voegelin. 
     _Science Politics and Gnosticism_." In _Within and Above 
     Ourselves: Essays in Political Analysis_, pp. 111-17. Wilmington, 
     Delaware: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1996g.

---. "Recovering History and Redeeming the Time." In _Within and Above 
     Ourselves: Essays in Political Analysis_, pp. 92-108. Wilmington, 
     Delaware: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1996h.

---. "This Terrible Century." In _Within and Above Ourselves: Essays 
     in Political Analysis_, pp. 49-62. Wilmington, Delaware: 
     Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1996i.

Olson, Alan M. "Review of Frederick G. Lawrence, ed. _The Beginning 
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Orsini, Louis Paul.  "Beyond Imaginative Oblivion: Eric Voegelin's 
     Paradox of Consciousness and the Literary Experience, Classic and 
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Pambrun, James R. "Review of Frederick G. Lawrence, ed. _The Beginning 
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     Lonergan Workshop, Volume 4, Supplementary Volume. Chico, 
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     (1985): 263-265.

Pangle, Thomas L. "On the Epistolary Dialogue between Leo Strauss and 
     Eric Voegelin." In _Leo Strauss: Political Philosopher and Jewish 
     Thinker_, edited by Kenneth L. Deutsch and Walter Nicgorski. 
     Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 1994.

Pellauer, David. "Review of Eugene Webb. _Philosophers of 
     Consciousness: Polanyi, Lonergan, Voegelin, Ricoeur, Girard, 
     Kierkegaard_. Seattle, Washington: Washington University Press, 
     1988." _Christian Century_ 106 (1989): 22-29.

Plevnik, Joseph. _Paul and the Parousia: An Exegetical and Theological 
     Investigation_. Peabody, Massachussets: Hendriksen, 1996.

"Poems and Essays in Honor of Wesley Trimpi." In _Hellas_, edited by 
     Kathy Eden and Steven Shankman., vol. 7 (2). Glenside, PA: Aldine 
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Porter, Jene. _Classics in Political Philosophy_. 2nd ed. New York: 
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Pustejovsky, John. "Iterating the Eschaton: Pietism and the New Myth of 
     Sacred History." _Daphnis (Netherlands)_ 19 (1990): 471-491.

Rodriguez, A. "`The People of God. Sects and the Spirit of Modernity.' 
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    _Studia Monastica_ 38 (1996): 233-234.

Rossbach, Stefan. "Gnosis, science and mysticism: a history of self-
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Ruderman, R.S. "Review of Zdravko Planinc. _Plato's Political 
     Philosophy. Prudence in the _Republic_ and the _Laws_.  Columbia, 
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    _Polis [York]_ 11 (1992): 195-209.

Schmidt, Lawrence. "George Grant on Simone Weil as Saint and Thinker." 
     In _George Grant and the Subversion of Modernity: Art, Philosophy, 
     Politics, Religion_, edited by Arthur Davis, pp. 263-81. Toronto: 
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Sibley, J.R. "Review of Eric Voegelin. _Anamnesis_. 1966. Partial 
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     Academy of Religion_ 47 (1979): 699-700.

Tessier, Jeffrey P.  "Three Portraits of Helen: Epic, Tragic and 
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     Religious Studies, Mc Master University, 1994.

Tiryakin, Edward. "Three Metacultures of Modernity: Christian, Gnostic, 
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Vander Molen, Ronald J. "Review of Eric Voegelin. _From Enlightenment 
     to Revolution_. Edited by John H. Hallowell. Durham, North 
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     Review_ 6 (1976): 226-227.

Voegelin, Eric. "Quod Deus Dicitur." In _Trajectories in the Study of 
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     of Religion_. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press, 1987.

---. _Evangelho e Cultura_. Preface by Mendo Castro Henriques and 
     Peter Stilwell. Lisbon: Associa o de Estudantes de Teologia, 1995.
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     1965-1985_, 172-212. Vol. 12. _Collected Works of Eric Voegelin_. 
     Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1990].

---. _Estudos de Ideias Politicas. De Erasmo a Nietzsche_. Translated 
     by Mendo Castro Henriques. Lisbon: TICA, 1996a. ISBN 972 617 130 X.

---. "Wedekind. Ein Beitrag zur Soziologie der Gegenwart." _Occasional 
     Papers. Eric-Voegelin-Archiv, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, 
     Muenchen_ II B (1996b). Edited by Thomas Hollweck. ISSN 1430-6786.

Walsh, David. "Review of Glenn C. Hughes. _Mystery and Myth in the 
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Weaver, Richard. "Gnostics of Education." In _Visions of Order: The 
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Webb, Eugene. "Review of Ted Mc Allister. _Revolt against Modernity: 
     Leo Strauss, Eric Voegelin and the Search for a Post-Liberal 
     Order_. University of Kansas Press, 1995." _Annals of the 
     American Academy of Political and Social Science_ 548 (1996): 230-
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Wiebe, Donald. "Review of Kirby, John and William Thompson, eds. 
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    Toronto: Edwin Mellen Press, 1983." _Toronto Journal of Theology_ 
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Williams, Michael Allen. _Rethinking `Gnosticism': An Argument for 
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    University Press, 1996.


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Dr. M.W. Poirier                  | Dr. Geoffrey L. Price
Dept. of Political Science        | Dept. of Religions and Theology
Concordia University              | University of Manchester
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