Resources on Avoiding Plagiarism
Department of Political Science
Concordia University

III. How Not to Plagiarize
B. Types and Examples of Plagiarism

Type 3: The "Apt Phrase"
If you use an author’s original and distinctive term or phrase without citation, it is plagiarism.

Example 1: Phrase

Original Source
[Preparations for war] tended, indeed, to promote territorial consolidation, centralization, differentiation in the instruments of government, and monopolization of the means of coercion, all the fundamental state-making processes. War made the state and the state made war.

[From: Charles Tilly, "Reflections on the History of European State-Making," in Charles Tilly, ed., The Formation of National States in Western Europe (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1975), 42.]

Plagiarism
Historically, war-making and state-building have been closely interrelated: War made the state and the state made war.

Proper Acknowledgement
Historically, war-making and state-building have been closely interrelated. In Charles Tilly’s famous phrase, “War made the state and the state made war.”1

1Charles Tilly, "Reflections on the History of European State-Making," in Charles Tilly, ed.,  The Formation of National States in Western Europe (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975), 42.

Example 2: Single Word
Using even a single word without acknowledgement can be “apt phrase” plagiarism, if the word was coined by the source from which is taken.

Original Source
The post-cold war world has seen the rise of an increasing number of regimes that cannot be easily classified as either authoritarian or democratic, but display some characteristics of eachin short, they are semi-authoritarian regimes...In choosing the term semi-authoritarian, we are not seeking to engage in a semantic discussion, but to highlight what we view as the defining characteristic of these regimes: the existence and persistence of mechanisms that effectively prevent the transfer of power through elections from the hands of the incumbent leaders or party to a new political elite or political organization.

[From: Matha Brill Olcott and Marina Ottaway, The Challenge of Semi-Authoritarianism, Carnegie Paper No. 7 (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1999). http://carnegieendowment.org/1999/10/01/challenge-of-semi-authoritarianism.]

Plagiarism
Some regimes combine elements of democracy and authoritarianism and are therefore semi-authoritarian.

Proper Acknowledgement
Some regimes, which Olcott and Ottaway (1999) have termed “semi-authoritarian,” combine elements of democracy and authoritarianism.